The Age of Rage


Troll-Doll-troll-dolls-1353646-302-450Internet ‘trolling’ is the anti-social act of causing of conflict and controversy online. Trolls are given the name from the mythical creature troll, due to their general unpleasantness and hatred upon people and society. They are pests on the internet which are hard to stop. They resort to racism, sexism and general violent threats to other internet users.

I have no personal problems with trolls or cyber bulling but that is most likely because I told really spread my opinions much on social media or post videos on YouTube or write controversial blog posts for an audience. It the fact of life that not everyone will like each other, same as in real life, they’re going to be people who disagree with your views or just general dislike of you. The Internet acts as a platform like the saying “Guns don’t kill people, people kill people”. It is the same concept with trolling as people have easier access to attack someone, and can do it behind a computer.

That same argument is relevant when studying the school girl Hannah Smith who committed suicide late last year due to constant online bulling from trolls. The trolls taunted and harassed with violent comments telling her to kill herself which she ultimately ended up doing.

The question I ask is who to blame?Image

Do we blame these social media sites for allowing such horrible things to take place? Do we blame the trolls for constantly making her life hell and spreading hate? Do we blame her for not taking action and shutting her networking sites off and report these trolls?

I guess we need to know that as soon as we participate in a social network we will come across trolls that want to put us down and ultimately we cannot stop them or change them. We need to be careful and know when to leave it alone.


Social Justice League


“clicktivism”, it has been both praised for the collective action and potential for change it generates and criticised as a form of “digital evangelism”.

I idea of clicktivism is a controversial one because we can post the fact we’ve joined a cause – any cause – we can notify others of our involvement.  Being public and sharing knowledge is great but what are we really doing? People can get the wrong idea about the true protest, and support something they don’t understand and often sometimes don’t really care about. This can put the whole protest into a downhill fall, with no real backbone.

rise-of-the-slacktivist-infographicThis idea is called slacktivism expressing the idea that sitting on your backside supporting a meaningless cause. It requires no confrontation, no element of surprise, no drastic actions.

A petition I’ve seen lately in the news the “BringBackOurGirls” petition. This is referring to the Nigerian school girls that were abducted in the middle of the night. This has caused a large clicktivism campaign, especially with celebrities bringing worldwide attention to the issue by using the hashtag #BringBackOurGirls. This has brought some scepticism of not actually doing anything and although that may be true, it is bring the attention of this issues to large media broadcasters around the world and politicians as well, giving them reason to take action amongst pressure from public.MichelleObamaBringBackOurGirls

This just shows the growing nature of the modern world and technology and how society is adjusting along with it.

Re-mix, Re-edit, Re-volution


In the year 2014, remix culture is the culture. Everything is being remixed or mashed up. It’s easier to borrow someone else’s work and mix it up then to create brand new content.culturt

It’s transforming Consumers into makers of Culture.

Check out the Top 40 hits, you’ll find that the majority of them have sampled someone’s music, whether it’s part of the chorus or the beat and rhythm. It’s just the new norm now.

However we must be careful, copyright and intellectual laws can be pretty strict if caught out deliberately stealing another person’s content. Read-Only Culture vs. Read/Write Culture is what is taken into account however who is the true producer? Most notable works of media are often remixes themselves. The “Stairway to Heaven” by Led Zeppelin, one of the most famous and popular songs ever pulls its opening from the band Spirit’s “Taurus,”

Though when successful remixing can give the original producer more recognition of their original work and can bring their dated content in modern era.

Works of art, culture, invention, and creation are informed and inspired by things that we experience in the world around us.

A major example today is the Superhero franchises. Both Marvel and DC have realised that reusing their old content which has been conveyed over many media channels over the years and reproducing them into major Blockbusters. For the production companies these raise large revenues and have been a commercial success e.g. The Spiderman trilogy with Toby Maguire from 2002-2007 has been remixed and relaunched again in 2012, only after 5 years the original. spider-man-2-promo_0594-Copy

We do we do this?

Because it’s familiar we know what to expect we know the story, as humans we are creatures of habit and like the idea of a re imagined story that we are familiar with.

Many more reboots to come, speaking of which I’m off to see Godzilla at the movies. I wonder what that is about.



Produsage is the purpose of produser2producing ones own content then consuming it as well (Brun 2007). The iphone has had a dramatic effect on this. We as audiences are changing, we don’t want to wait around for someone to make our content, and we’ll just make it ourselves.

In respect to the iPhone, it has helped create us into journalists, citizen journalists that is. Any time you share a video of a storm, or tweet about the traffic you are broadcasting your voice into the public sphere. How many times have you seen on channel nine news asking to send photos of the latest hurricane in QLD? It’s intriguing as the citizens are now doing the work for these broadcasters. First hand videos at the scene all thanks to iPhone. Until 2007 which piece of technology could take High resolution photos and videos, quick access to the web, instant social media access?

When we look at Bruns (2007) characteristics of prod usage and the iPhone we see that

Organisational shift; this is being taken on board by Apple, allowing its users to produce Apps for its other Apple customers to use. Giving the creativity to the user, making the App so successful as it is created by the user for the user.  However fluid movement is limited Producers have the ability to make Apps to their liking but as for anything else it’s pretty much taboo in the iOS world.23-Apple-App-Store

Unfinished; there are applications that will let you remix your song, change them up to set them as ringtones, edit your photos and make hilarious new ones, Fatbooth anyone?? Create a brand new image of yourself and not a flattering one at that. You can edit so much content that you have created but its operating system is extremely not permissive, it is a closed operating system not allowing the producer to change or adjust its settings.
iPhone can do so much in the way of produsage but if its producing your custom iphone..

Look elsewhere!

Bruns, Axel (2007) Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content Creation. In Proceedings Creativity & Cognition 6, Washington, DC.

The Cultural Commodity



Since the iPhone is an all in one device, it’s how we make phone calls, text each other, surf the net, use social networks, take photos, listen to music and play games, just to name a few. It is the ultimate device of convergence. This being said it has become more than a piece of technology; it has become part of who we are, a cultural commodity (Jiang 2011). We saw the invention of the app, which have seen over 14 billion app downloads from the app store opening in 2008 (Kim 2011).  Depending on your device, whether android or Iphone, you are put into a community. Have you noticed a person sitting alone at a restaurant? Or a peak hour train ride? You’ll find that the majority of these people will be using their iPhone or smartphone devices.

The audience or user has formed a bond with this technology which has altered our lifestyles. This technology has branched away from monologic media and become extremely dialogic based, that is interaction and communication focused (Moore 2014).  We share our thoughts on social media, our ideas through texts and our emotions through photos.

With this device comes great responsibility, sorry for the cliché, but it’s true,  we have much more power than ever, our voice can be heard from social networks from seconds, incorrect text messages can be sent at any time, no longer as much gatekeepers blocking us of our opinions (Moore 2014). Just from the palm of our hand we are truly globalised and that we can tweet or watch a video anywhere we may be is incredible. The iPhone is a cultural aesthetic of our generation.


Kim, R 2011, The iPhone Effect: How Apple’s phone changed everything,, viewed 2 April 2014,

Jiang, H 2011, Young People’s Adoption and Consumption of a Cultural Commodity – iPhone, MEDIA@LSE Electronic MSc Dissertation Series, Media@LSE  London School of Economics and Political Science, London, England

Moore, C 2014, ‘Audiences: Power, access and participation’, Lecture slides, BCM112, University of Wollongong, viewed 3 April 2014

Alamy 2013, Image of iphone used above, The Telegraph, viewed 3 April 2014,

IPhone Revolutionary? Or Exclusionary?


The IPhone is so unlike any other phone out there, unlike android systems which can be used on a variety of hardware’s, iPhone has its own hardware for its own software as the same with its iPads and MacBook’s (Moore 2014). Apple products are engineered to work together and often work better. The iPhone and its IOS operating system is a closed and locked environment, all updates are controlled by apple only apps and music/videos can be purchased from their own iTunes and app stores (Moore 2014). This had been Apple’s ideology from the start, a media platform of equality, hardware that is identical and that its customers have all have the same experience in use (Wu 2010). They are excluding themselves from other media platforms and operating systems as all the media such as apps are only accessible on IOS operating systems and only apple products can be synced with iTunes and its privileges (Wu 2010).  Though completely different from the rest of the market, Apple’s closed IOS system has been popular for customers for its simple design and layout (hardware and software), its unified experience and has proved to be quick profitable with Apple selling 150.2 million iPhones in 2013 and in having a 43.4% share in the US smartphone market (Smith 2014). Although its easy and simple technology has won over some, it’s been seen as too controlled for others, its aesthetics are too restricted more and more audiences want to do what able they want on their device like customising it to their liking, having a larger support network  and being more compatible with other devices (Jenkins 2014). Will we see Apple freeing some restrictions in the future? Or further restricting their audience in order to have more power in the market?.


Jenkins, H 2004, ‘The cultural logic of media convergence’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 7 (1),p 33-43

Moore, C 2014, ‘Platforms, permissions and ideologies’ Lecture slides, BCM112, University of Wollongong, viewed 31 March 2014

Smith, C 27 January 2014, (January 2014) By the Numbers: 102 Amazing Apple Statistics & Facts, Digital Marketing Ramblings, viewed 1 April 2014,

Wu,T 20 November 2010, How Apple’s Closed Ways Could Land It Into Antitrust Trouble,, viewed 31 March 2014,

iPhone rules, iPhones rule

Dachis, A 2001

Dachis, A 2011

First things first, what is copyright?

Copyright is the legal right given that allows someone to grant permission for another to use or reproduce their work. This applies to creative works such as, film, music, gaming programs, artistic works and sound recordings etc. Copyright is an intellectual law in place to protect producers intellectual property (Moore 2014).

The minute you turn on your new iPhone device you are obligated to agree to their terms and conditions agreement (usually far too long to actually read) before you can get going on the phone, Apple which is parent company has copyright over anything that is similar to iPhone hardware and its IOS software. In recent years there have been ongoing battles between smartphone companies and copyright infringement, in fact since 2011 there have been dozens of court cases between Apple and Samsung due to similarities in their smartphone designs (Duncan 2011). Unlike software as such as the android system which is an open source platform, allowing its users to modify their settings and personalise to their liking the Apple iOS software used on its iPhone and other devices is a closed source, meaning it can only be tweaked and customer by apple itself from their producers and it’s user must wait for updates to be available (Kraznit 2009). The users of iPhones are only permitted by buy music and videos from the apple iTunes Store as well as approved apps from the App Store. People who go against their terms and conditions agreement with apple and modify their software are called “jail breakers”(Kraznit 2009).

According to the ‘Apple iPhone School’ Jailbreaking is often seen as a breach of copyright as it interferes with the intellectual property of Apple’s iOS software and allows the user to customise their iPhone with settings and apps that normally aren’t approved by apple, they are often similar to settings to mimic the android system. As of now “jailbreaking” is not illegal, but is unsupported by apple and voids warranty.


Dachis, A 2011,Four Reasons Not to Jailbreak Your iPhone, iPod touch, or iPad, image of iphone used,, viewed 28 March 2014,

Duncan, G 20 September 2011, ‘Apple vs. Samsung explained: An overview of the patent battleground’, Digital, viewed 26 March 2014,!CC9tj

Kraznit, T 13 February 2009, Apple: iPhone jailbreaking violates our copyright,,

Moore, C 2014, ‘Copyright, ownership structures and indrusty control’, Lecture Slides, BCM112, University of Wollongong, viewed 24 March 2014

 ‘What is jailbreaking? Technical Definition of Jailbreak: ‘Apple iPhone School, viewed 26 March 2014,